TOXIC TO DOGS AND CATS PLANTS FOODS AND  HERBS

CHOCOLATE,

ONIONS, GARLIC

UNRIPE/GREEN TOMATOES,

UNRIPE UNCOOKED GREEN SKINS of POTATOS,

ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS IN PEANUT BUTTERS OFTEN, KALE,

MACADAMA NUTS,

QUORN,

AVOCADOS

GRAPES, RAISINS, SULTANAS,

PIPS OF APPLES, CHERRY STONES,

YEAST DOUGH, (but not inert yeast as in Engevita)

MUSHROOMS,

KALE,

ALCOHOL.

CAYENNE PEPPER...burns the inside of stomachs of dogs and cats...it is STUPIDLY in the BARF diets to help apparently stated relieve the HEART pressure all the animal fats harm ...but most REPUTABLE vets are AGAINST BARF...not ONE vet organisation in the WORLD recommends or supports this diet...and ALL WARN AGAINST CAYENNE PEPPER !

BLACK PEPPER also.

Now GARLIC...in small doses is sometimes used in FLEA PARASITE treatments for dogs and cats. BEWARE it is ONION FAMILY however so toxic in large doses.

BLACK PEPPER is also not recommended for dogs...but in small doses in the GOLDEN PASTE it is ok. CONTROLLED DOSAGES it reacts with curcumin to have good effects for arthritis cancer skin and hair allergies and even epilepsy fit reductions...coconut has round and tape worm treatment effect/deterrent effects they hate coconut oil.

Golden Paste...the active ingredient is the CURCUMIN...in the TUMERIC POWER..but many curry tumeric powders do NOT contain TURMERIC so no use...it has to be about 5,8 percent in RAW VIRGIN ORGANIC TUMERIC POWDER ...beware the sources. Ground Black Pepper reacts with the curcumin for the beneficial effects on coats health and neurological system. 

DETERRENT PLANTS...ROSEMARY, LAVENDER, MINT. 

Now on this page...I put the top lists I found ...and made some IN RED comments...because...I want to know...if dogs have had reactions to anything NOT on these lists...QUORN was the one that I discovered and added myself...it is a FUNGHI so MUSHROOMS are generally TOXIC to dogs and cats...but because in so many VEGAN IMMITATION MEATS I made like maybe others the mistake of making my dogs sick on Quorn..SO I SHARE !

I disregarded COCONUT oil listed in one list...but warn..in excess it is bad for PANCREATIC problem risk dogs / cats.

Any comments on EXTRAS or disagreements welcome if observed !

http://vegan-information.com/TOXIC_CATS_DOGS_FOODS.html

http://www.vetstreet.com/care/human-foods-that-are-dangerous-for-dogs-and-cats

Human foods like chocolate, avocados, garlic and onions can be poisonous to cats and dogs.

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What Do I Need to Know About Foods that Are Dangerous for My Pet?

A number of human foods are dangerous to pets. Many of these foods may seem tasty to our pets but can prove deadly if eaten. It can be very tempting to offer pets food from the table, but pets should not be given human food unless recommended by your veterinarian.

If you suspect your pet may have eaten a dangerous food, contact your veterinarian immediately. In many cases, early recognition and treatment are critical.


Xylitol

Xylitol is an artificial sweetener found in products such as gum, candy, mints, toothpaste, and mouthwash. Xylitol is harmful to dogs because it causes a sudden release of insulin in the body that leads to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Xylitol can also cause liver damage in dogs. Within 30 minutes after eating, the dog may vomit, be lethargic (tired), and/or be uncoordinated. However, some signs of toxicity can also be delayed for hours or even for a few days. Xylitol toxicity in dogs can be fatal if untreated. It is unknown whether xylitol is toxic to cats.


Chocolate, Coffee, and Caffeine

Chocolate contains theobromine, a chemical that is toxic to dogs in large enough quantities. Chocolate also contains caffeine, which is found in coffee, tea, and certain soft drinks. Different types of chocolate contain different amounts of theobromine and caffeine. For example, dark chocolate and baking chocolate contain more of these compounds than milk chocolate does, so a dog would need to eat more milk chocolate in order to become ill. However, even a few ounces of chocolate can be enough to cause illness in a small dog, so no amount or type of chocolate should be considered “safe” for a dog to eat. Chocolate toxicity can causevomiting, diarrhea, rapid or irregular heart rate, restlessness, muscle tremors, and seizures. Death can occur within 24 hours of ingestion.


Grapes and Raisins

Grapes and raisins can cause acute (sudden) kidney failure in cats and dogs. It is unknown what the toxic agent is in these fruits. However, clinical signs can occur within 24 hours of eating and include vomiting, diarrhea, and lethargy (tiredness). Other signs of illness relate to the eventual shutdown of kidney functioning.


Avocados

The avocado tree leaves, pits, fruit, and plant bark are likely all toxic. Clinical signs in dogs and cats include vomiting and diarrhea.


Garlic and Onions

Garlic and onions contain chemicals that damage red blood cells in cats and dogs. Affected red blood cells can rupture or lose their ability to carry oxygen effectively. Cooking these foods does not reduce their potential toxicity. Fresh, cooked, and/or powdered garlic and/or onions are commonly found in baby food, which is sometimes given to animals when they are sick, so be sure to read food labels carefully.


Macadamia Nuts

Macadamia nuts are common in candies and chocolates. The mechanism of macadamia nut toxicity is not well understood, but clinical signs in dogs include depression, weakness, vomiting, tremors, joint pain, and pale gums. Clinical signs can occur within 12 hours after eating. In some cases, signs can resolve without treatment in 24 to 48 hours, but patient monitoring is strongly recommended.

Prevention

Many cases of human food toxicity in pets are accidental. A pet may find and chew on a package of gum or candy, or steal food from a countertop or table. The best way to prevent this is to keep all food items in closed cabinets or in areas that are inaccessible to pets. This may be particularly difficult during the holiday season, when more candy, chocolate, fruit baskets, and other food items are around. During these times, increased vigilance can help prevent pets from finding and eating dangerous foods.

Unfortunately, some cases of food toxicity in pets occur when pets are given a human food that contains a dangerous component. In general, human food items should not be given to pets unless recommended by your veterinarian. Children should also be taught to never give candy, gum, or other human food items to pets. For more information on human foods that are dangerous for pets, visit the ASPCA (American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals) Animal Poison Control Center. If you suspect that your pet has eaten a potentially hazardous item, contact your veterinarian immediately.

This article has been reviewed by a Veterinarian.

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https://www.aspca.org/pet-care/animal-poison-control/people-foods-avoid-feeding-your-pets

Animal Poison Control

People Foods to Avoid Feeding Your Pets

ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Phone Number: (888) 426-4435

Our Animal Poison Control Center experts have put together a handy list of the top toxic people foods to avoid feeding your pet. As always, if you suspect your pet has eaten any of the following foods, please note the amount ingested and contact your veterinarian or the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center at (888) 426-4435.

Alcohol
Alcoholic beverages and food products containing alcohol can cause vomiting, diarrhea, decreased coordination, central nervous system depression, difficulty breathing, tremors, abnormal blood acidity, coma and even death. Under no circumstances should your pet be given any alcohol. If you suspect that your pet has ingested alcohol, contact your veterinarian or the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center immediately.

Avocado
Avocado is primarily a problem for birds, rabbits, donkeys, horses, and ruminants including sheep and goats. The biggest concern is for cardiovascular damage and death in birds.  Horses, donkeys and ruminants frequently get swollen, edematous head and neck.

Chocolate, Coffee and Caffeine
These products all contain substances called methylxanthines, which are found in cacao seeds, the fruit of the plant used to make coffee, and in the nuts of an extract used in some sodas. When ingested by pets, methylxanthines can cause vomiting and diarrhea, panting, excessive thirst and urination, hyperactivity, abnormal heart rhythm, tremors, seizures and even death. Note that darker chocolate is more dangerous than milk chocolate. White chocolate has the lowest level of methylxanthines, while baking chocolate contains the highest.

Citrus
The stems, leaves, peels, fruit and seeds of citrus plants contain varying amounts of citric acid, essential oils that can cause irritation and possibly even central nervous system depression if ingested in significant amounts. Small doses, such as eating the fruit, are not likely to present problems beyond minor stomach upset.

Coconut and Coconut Oil
When ingested in small amounts, coconut and coconut-based products are not likely to cause serious harm to your pet. The flesh and milk of fresh coconuts do contain oils that may cause stomach upset, loose stools or diarrhea. Because of this, we encourage you to use caution when offering your pets these foods. Coconut water is high in potassium and should not be given to your pet.

Grapes and Raisins
Although the toxic substance within grapes and raisins is unknown, these fruits can cause kidney failure. Until more information is known about the toxic substance, it is best to avoid feeding grapes and raisins to dogs.

Macadamia Nuts
Macadamia nuts can cause weakness, depression, vomiting, tremors and hyperthermia in dogs. Signs usually appear within 12 hours of ingestion and can last approximately 12 to 48 hours.

Milk and Dairy
Because pets do not possess significant amounts of lactase (the enzyme that breaks down lactose in milk), milk and other dairy-based products cause them diarrhea or other digestive upset.

Nuts
Nuts, including almonds, pecans, and walnuts, contain high amounts of oils and fats. The fats can cause vomiting and diarrhea, and potentially pancreatitis in pets.

Onions, Garlic, Chives
These vegetables and herbs can cause gastrointestinal irritation and could lead to red blood cell damage. Although cats are more susceptible, dogs are also at risk if a large enough amount is consumed. Toxicity is normally diagnosed through history, clinical signs and microscopic confirmation of Heinz bodies.

Raw/Undercooked Meat, Eggs and Bones
Raw meat and raw eggs can contain bacteria such as Salmonella and E. coli that can be harmful to pets and humans. Raw eggs contain an enzyme called avidin that decreases the absorption of biotin (a B vitamin), which can lead to skin and coat problems. Feeding your pet raw bones may seem like a natural and healthy option that might occur if your pet lived in the wild. However, this can be very dangerous for a domestic pet, who might choke on bones, or sustain a grave injury should the bone splinter and become lodged in or puncture your pet’s digestive tract.

Salt and Salty Snack Foods
Large amounts of salt can produce excessive thirst and urination, or even sodium ion poisoning in pets. Signs that your pet may have eaten too many salty foods include vomiting, diarrhea, depression, tremors, elevated body temperature, seizures and even death. As such, we encourage you to avoid feeding salt-heavy snacks like potato chips, pretzels, and salted popcorn to your pets. 

Xylitol
Xylitol is used as a sweetener in many products, including gum, candy, baked goods and toothpaste. It can cause insulin release in most species, which can lead to liver failure. The increase in insulin leads to hypoglycemia (lowered sugar levels). Initial signs of toxicosis include vomiting, lethargy and loss of coordination. Signs can progress to seizures. Elevated liver enzymes and liver failure can be seen within a few days. EDIT..ACE K IS ALSO AN ARTIFICIAL TOXIC TO PETS SWEETNENER

Yeast Dough
Yeast dough can rise and cause gas to accumulate in your pet’s digestive system. This can be painful and can cause the stomach to bloat, and potentially twist, becoming a life threatening emergency. The yeast produce ethanol as a by-product and a dog ingesting raw bread dough can become drunk (See alcohol).   

EDIT...NOT CORRECT REF COCONUT OIL !!

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https://www.livescience.com/54860-foods-cause-the-most-pet-deaths.html

THE BEST LIST ! ONIONS ! TOXIC TOXIC ! and in so many pastas soups etc  BEWARE ONIONS AND GARLICS !

These 7 Foods Cause the Most Pet Deaths

By Bahar Gholipour, Contributing Writer | 

 

Credit: Igor Normann/Shutterstock.com

If you are a pet owner, you might have been tempted to spoil your furry family memberwith a treat from your plate. But before you do, make sure you're not sharing one of the common foods that can cause serious, and sometimes fatal, medical problems for cats and dogs.

In a new review of studies, two animal health researchers in Italy drew up a list of the foods that are the most common culprits in pet poisonings worldwide.

"Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats," the researchers wrote in their review, published in the journal Frontiers in Veterinary Science. "The poisoning episodes are generally due to lack of public knowledge of the serious health threat to dogs and cats that can be posed by these products."

00:1901:06

Sometimes, owners give these harmful foods to their dogs and cats, but a lot of times, pets accidentally ingest these foods, which happen to be commonplace in homes. The researchers found that, in the past decade, reported cases of pet poisoning have involved chocolate and chocolate-based products, plant foods in the Allium genus (including onions, garlic, leeks and chives), macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (including grapes, raisins, sultanas and currants), foods sweetened with xylitol (such as sugar-free chewing gums and cookies), ethanol in alcoholic beverages, and unbaked bread dough.

The list of human foods that are toxic to cats and dogs continues to grow as cases get reported. And in many instances, scientists don't know the exact biological reasons why certain foods sicken animals. [10 Things You Didn't Know About Dogs]

"While some foodstuffs, such as chocolate, have long been known to cause poisoning in dogs and cats, others, such as grapes, had previously been considered unlikely to cause problems, and have emerged as a potential concern only in the last few years," the authors of the review, Cristina Cortinovis and Francesca Caloni, of the University of Milan in Italy, wrote in their paper. And as a result, poisoning cases have sometimes been wrongly diagnosed, they said.

In general, dogs are affected more than cats, in part because they eat pretty much anything, whereas cats are somewhat protected becausethey're pickier eaters, the researchers found.

Here's an outline of what's known about foods that are toxic to dogs and cats, according to the review:

Chocolate, coffee and caffeine

Chocolate has a dark side: Cocoa-based products are the items most commonly involved in food poisoning in pets, causing anything from mild problems such as tummy aches to seizures and death. These "poisoning episodes frequently occur around holidays, when there is a higher occurrence of chocolate products in the home," the researchers wrote.

Chocolate contains two compounds that are toxic to pets: theobromine and caffeine, the researchers said. These compounds alter cellular processes and result in the stimulation of both the central nervous systemand heart muscles. Depending on the type of chocolate (dark chocolate has more theobromine than lighter chocolate), one small piece can be enough to make a small dog sick. [10 Interesting Facts About Caffeine]

Theobromine and caffeine are also found in other types of products. Poisoning cases have been reported after the ingestion of herbal supplements, garden mulch made of cacao bean shells, caffeine tablets and caffeine-containing bait, according to the review.

Initial symptoms often occur within 2 to 4 hours after ingestion and include restlessness, excessive thirst, urinary incontinence and vomiting. "Dogs can be in an excited state," and have a fever or rapid heart rate, the researchers said. If the animal gets prompt treatment, it often can recover well, but delaying treatment can result in seizures, coma and even death from abnormal heart rhythm or respiratory failure.

Xylitol

The next most common toxic foods for pets are products sweetened with an artificial sweetener called xylitol. Xylitol isfrequently used in products such as sugar-free gum, candy, bread and other baked goods. Xylitol is also found in dental care products (for both people and pets) because of its antibacterial properties.

"Dogs are the species at risk of developing severe, life-threatening clinical signs," the researchers wrote. In dogs, xylitol stimulates the release of the hormone insulin, leading to a dangerous decrease in blood sugar levels.

Symptoms of xylitol poisoning may develop within 30 to 60 minutes of ingestion, but they also may occur up to 12 hours later. These symptoms include vomiting and signs of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), such as lethargy, inability to control movements, collapsing and seizures.

Onions, chives, garlic and leeks

Plant species in the Allium genius — such as onions, chives, garlic and leeks — often make dogs and cats sick. These common ingredients contain compounds called organosulfoxides. When the animal chews the plant, the organosulfoxides are converted into a complex mixture of sulfur compounds, which can cause the animal's red blood cells to break down. If the dog or cat ingests even just a piece of an onion (specifically, 5 grams of onion per kilogram of body weight for cats, or 15 to 30 grams per kg for dogs), it can cause dangerous changes to their blood.

According to the review, between 1994 and 2008, there were 69 reported cases of dog poisonings and four cases of cat poisonings from Alliumfoods. The cases included a range of different foods: raw and baked garlic, Catalan spring onions (commonly known as "calcot"), onion soufflé, butter-cooked onions and steamed dumplings containing Chinese chives. Onions and other Allium plantsmaintain the compounds that cause their toxic effects even after being cooked or dried, the researchers added. [6 Secrets to Unlocking Your Cat's Personality]

Usually, cats and dogs ingest these foods accidentally, but there was one reported case in which an owner intentionally fed a dog a large quantity of raw onions. While some pets may not show any symptoms after ingesting Allium foods, there have been cases of fatal poisonings.

Symptoms of Allium poisoning may appear a day or several days after consumption, depending on the amounts ingested. Common initial signs include vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and loss of appetite. The affected animals develop anemia, and show symptoms such as weakness, rapid breathing, high heart rate, pale color in mucous membranes and reddish or brown urine.

Alcohol

Ethanol, or alcohol, poisoning in small animals generally occurs when an animal accidentally ingests an alcoholic beverage. However, cases of alcohol poisoning in dogs have been reported after dogs have ingested rotten apples, sloe berries used to make sloe gin, and uncooked bread and pizza dough, all of which contain the compound.

When pets digest ethanol, it gets rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and reaches the brain, just as it does in humans. Within an hour, the animals may show depression, loss of movement control, lethargy, sedation and high body temperature. Animals may go into a coma and develop a dangerously slow breathing rate. In most of the reported cases, the affected pets recovered after receiving treatment and supportive care.

Ethanol isn't found only in foods and beverages, however. Paint and varnish, medication, perfume, mouthwash and certain types of antifreezealso contain the compound.

Grapes and their dried products (raisins, sultanas and currants)

Grapes, raisins, sultanas and currants in both raw and cooked forms (including those found in snack bars and baked goods) have been reported to cause kidney failure in dogs. However, not all dogs have the same reactions to these foods, according to the review.

In a recent study that looked at 180 case reports involving dogs' ingestion of grapes and related fruits, some animals didn't show any symptoms after eating 2 lbs. (0.9 kg) of raisins, while others died after eating just a handful. Dogs that develop symptoms may show signs such as vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, lethargy and abdominal pain within 24 hours of ingesting the grape products.

Hops

Hops are commonly used for brewing beer, and have become more of a risk to pets as more and more people pick up home brewing as a hobby, according to the review.

Hops contain a variety of compounds — including resins, essential oils and tannins — which can lead to fever when pets ingest them. Other symptoms include anxiety, rapid heart rate, panting, vomiting, abdominal pain and seizures. The affected animals may show symptoms within hours of eating hops. The risk of death can remain high even after the animal is treated for fever. [Here, Kitty, Kitty: 10 Facts for Cat Lovers]

Macadamia nuts

Macadamia nuts are popular and healthy snacks for humans, but they can poison dogs. It's not clear how much of these nuts, when ingested by dogs, can cause serious problems. However, some reports indicate that the ingestion of as little as 0.7 grams per kg of nuts is enough to cause symptoms.

Symptoms of macadamia-nut poisoning develop within 12 hours and may include weakness (particularly hind-limb weakness), vomiting, inability to control movements, shaking, fever, abdominal pain, stiffness and pale mucous membranes. Macadamia-nut poisoning may not be very common, but in just five years, more than 80 cases were reported just in Queensland, Australia, a major area for macadamia-nut cultivation. No pet deaths resulting from macadamia-nut ingestion have been reported to date, and animals are expected to fully recover within a day or two with minimal treatment, the researchers wrote.

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https://www.vets-now.com/2017/02/foods-poisonous-to-cats/

What not to feed your cat

Any food not specifically designed for cats can affect the digestive system, causing vomiting, diarrhoea, or loss of appetite. Here are some foods of particular concern.

1. Alcohol

As little as a tablespoon of alcohol can lead to problems for your cat. It can cause severe liver and brain damage.

2. Chocolate

Chocolate contains theobromine. While this bitter-tasting stimulant is found in all forms, it’s most concentrated in dark and unsweetened chocolate. Ingestion can cause heart problems, muscle tremors, or seizures. Chocolate also contains caffeine.

Image of coffee cup with cat for Vets Now article on poisons to cats

3. Coffee, tea and energy drinks

These contain caffeine — it can cause your cat to become restless, suffer from rapid breathing, heart palpitations and muscle tremors.

4. Dairy products

Some cats are lactose intolerant and if they eat dairy products it can cause vomiting and diarrhoea.

5. Fat trimmings, raw meat, raw eggs and raw fish

Can cause vomiting, diarrhoea or a painful condition called pancreatitis (from excessive fat) and there is also a risk of Salmonella or E. coli associated with these foods.

6. Grapes and raisins

Dogs can suffer acute kidney failure from eating grapes or raisins — and although toxicity in cats is only anecdotal we would strongly advise that you keep these foods out of reach of your cat.

7. Onions and garlic

All members of the onion family can cause problems if eaten in sufficient quantity. A little bit of onion or garlic in some sauce is not likely to cause any problems. However, eating a clove of garlic or a green onion may cause digestive upset. Eating some type of onion on a regular basis could cause anemia.

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8. Xylitol

This is a sweetener used in a lot of sugar-free foods, especially chewing gum. There are no records of cats becoming ill from this product, but in dogs it can cause a severe drop in blood sugar — which can cause seizures and convulsions or even death — followed by liver failure. It’s better to be safe and not let your cat eat foods that contain this ingredient. Clickhere for our full article on xylitol.

Immediate care

If you suspect your cat has eaten something he shouldn’t try to determine how much she may have eaten and contac

t your vet for specific advice. In many cases small quantities may not cause a problem but larger quantities may require treatment.

Prevention

The best prevention is simply to keep your food out of reach of your cat. If you choose to give your cat human food, follow these guidelines:

  • The food should only be considered a treat and only given on the odd occasion to prevent gastrointestinal upset and nutritional imbalances
  • If you wouldn’t eat it, don’t feed it to your cat. If you wouldn’t eat the food raw, then your cat shouldn’t either
Treatment

Treatment is generally supportive until the symptoms resolve. This may involve hospitalization, intravenous fluids (a drip) and blood tests to monitor organ function.

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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4801869/

Logo of fvetsLink to Publisher's site

. 2016; 3: 26.

Published online 2016 Mar 22. doi:  10.3389/fvets.2016.00026

PMCID: PMC4801869

Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats

Cristina Cortinovis1 and Francesca Caloni1,*

Author information ► Article notes ► Copyright and License information ►

Abstract

Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products,Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek, and chives), macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas, and currants), products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages, and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally due to lack of public knowledge of the serious health threat to dogs and cats that can be posed by these products. The present review aims to outline the current knowledge of common food items frequently involved in the poisoning of small animals, particularly dogs, and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature.

Keywords: chocolate, ethanol, grape, macadamia nuts, onion, poisoning, pets, xylitol

Introduction

Several foods, while safe for humans, may pose a serious threat to the health of dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate, onions, macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas, and currants), xylitol, and ethanol have been recorded worldwide in the last decade (). Foods accounted for 14.8% of hazardous exposure cases reported to the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Chocolate- and cocoa-based products were most commonly involved, followed by products sweetened with xylitol, onions and garlic, grapes and raisins, macadamia nuts, and ethanol (). In general, the poisoning episodes resulted from a lack of public knowledge of the health hazard to small animals that may be posed by these products. Dogs and cats may be fed harmful foodstuffs by owners unaware of the danger or given the wide occurrence of these products in the home, pets may easily have accidental access to them. Dogs are undiscriminating in their eating habits and will readily ingest potentially harmful foodstuffs, thus being far more commonly affected than cats (). While some foodstuffs, such as chocolate, have long been known to cause poisoning in dogs and cats, others such as grapes had previously been considered unlikely to cause problems and have emerged as a potential concern only in the last few years (). As a consequence, cases of significant exposure had been wrongly diagnosed for many years (). This review aims to outline the current knowledge of common household foods frequently involved in the poisoning of small animals, particularly dogs, and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature.

Allium spp.

Onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum), leek (Allium porrum), and chives (Allium schoenoprasum) are all members of the genus Allium (Amaryllidaceae family). These bulbous plants are strongly aromatic, producing a characteristic odor when crushed, and are commonly used (fresh, cooked, or dehydrated) as ingredients in many dishes. The components responsible for their toxicity are organosulfoxides. Chewing the plant converts organosulfoxides to a complex mixture of sulfur compounds. The primary toxicological mechanism of Allium-derived sulfur compounds is oxidative hemolysis characterized by the development of methemoglobinemia and Heinz body formation in the erythrocytes (). Cooking, drying, and processing do not eliminate the toxic effect of Allium spp. (). Dogs and cats are highly susceptible toAllium toxicosis and the ingestion of 5 g/kg of onions by cats and 15–30 g/kg by dogs is enough to cause clinically important hematologic changes (). In the case of dogs, hereditary high erythrocyte-reduced glutathione and potassium concentrations observed in certain breeds (e.g., Akita, Shiba, and Jindo) lead to greater susceptibility to onion-induced oxidative damage (). Clinical signs of Allium toxicosis may appear 1 day or several days after consumption depending on the amounts ingested. Common clinical signs initially include vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and depression. Due to the developing anemia, pale mucous membranes, weakness, rapid respiratory and heart rates, jaundice, and dark urine (reddish or brown) indicating hemoglobinuria are subsequently observed (). Several cases of dog and cat poisoning by Allium spp. have been reported in the literature. Poisoning has been reported to occur after the ingestion of Catalan spring onion commonly known as “calcot” (), baked garlic (), onion soufflè (), butter-cooked onions (), and Chinese steamed dumplings containing Chinese chives (Allium tuberosum) and garlic (). A case in which a dog was intentionally fed a large quantity of raw onions by the owner has also been reported (). From 1994 to 2008, 69 cases of canine poisoning and 4 cases of feline poisoning by Allium spp. ingestion () were recorded by the Veterinary Poisons Information Service (VPIS). In the case of dogs, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and, less frequently, anemia, hematuria, and convulsions were reported. Two cases of death occurred and two dogs were euthanized. In the case of cats, gastrointestinal signs, lethargy, and polydipsia occurred in one case, while anemia and icterus were observed in the second case. One cat remained asymptomatic without treatment, and the other cat died from hemorrhage into the pleural and abdominal cavities (). Recently, hypertension associated with garlic-induced hemolytic anemia has been reported in the case of a dog (). No specific antidote is available for Allium toxicosis. Inducing vomiting should be considered in asymptomatic dogs and cats, provided there are no complicating factors and not more than 2 h have elapsed since ingestion (). The administration of activated charcoal is indicated after vomiting has stopped. Once clinical signs have manifested themselves, treatment should consist of supportive care. Severely anemic animals may require a blood transfusion ().

Ethanol

Ethanol or ethyl alcohol is a two-carbon alcohol found in a variety of products, such as alcoholic beverages, paint and varnish, medication, perfume, mouthwash, certain types of thermometers, and certain forms of antifreeze. It is also used as a disinfectant, a fuel substitute, and if administered intravenously, as a competitive substrate in the treatment of dogs and cats poisoned by ethylene glycol. Ethanol toxicosis in small animals generally occurs as a result of accidental ingestion of alcoholic beverages (). Ethanol intoxication has also been reported in the case of dogs, following ingestion of rotten apples (), sloe berries used to make sloe gin (), and uncooked bread and pizza dough (). The latter contains the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which metabolizes carbohydrate substrates to ethanol and carbon dioxide (). Once ingested, ethanol is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood–brain barrier (). The mechanism of action of ethanol is not completely clear. Ethanol is suspected of inhibitingN-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors in brain cells and the related production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (). Clinical signs usually develop within an hour of ingestion and include central nervous system (CNS) depression, ataxia, lethargy, sedation, hypothermia, and metabolic acidosis (). Animals may become comatose and develop severe respiratory depression. A distended and painful abdomen due to excessive gas production may be noted in animals that ingest uncooked bread dough (). Emesis should be induced with extreme caution and only in cases of very recent ingestion by animals that prove to be asymptomatic (). Recently, hemodialysis has been shown to be beneficial for the rapid removal of ethanol in patients with severe toxicosis (). Yohimbine, an alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist which readily crosses the blood–brain barrier, has been recommended as an arousal agent in the treatment of ethanol intoxication (). In previous case reports, most patients recovered when monitored closely and given supportive care (). Fatal ethanol intoxication was reported in the case of a dog, following the massive ingestion of rotten apples. The dog developed vomiting, ataxia, tremors, and dehydration, and died 48 h later. However, liver damage secondary to the chronic ingestion of rotten apples (presumed to reflect chronic ethanol toxicity) was suspected as a factor in the death of this dog ().

Grapes and Their Dried Products (Raisins, Sultanas, and Currants)

Grapes, the fruits of Vitis vinifera, and their dried products (raisins, sultanas, and currants) have been reported to cause renal failure in dogs. The fruits may be ingested raw or cooked as ingredients of fruit cake, mince pies, malt loaf, snack bars, scones, and other baked goods (). The toxic syndrome has also been observed with consumption of marc (the residue of grapes after pressing) (). The toxic principle(s) and the exact mechanism of grape-induced nephrotoxicity are still unknown. The latter appears to involve a nephrotoxic agent or an idiosyncratic reaction, leading to hypovolemic shock and renal ischemia (). There is considerable variation in the susceptibility of dogs to grapes and their dried products. In a recent study that reviewed 180 reports recorded by the VPIS between August 1994 and September 2007 on the ingestion of Vitis fruits by dogs, some animals were reported to remain asymptomatic after ingesting up to 1 kg of raisins while others died following the ingestion of just a handful (). Published case reports have identified renal failure in dogs following the ingestion of estimated doses of raisins as low as 2.8 mg/kg () and as little as four to five grapes in a dog weighing 8.2 kg () (Table ​(Table1).1). Therefore, ingestion of any quantity of these fruits should be considered as a potential clinical problem. Vomiting within 24 h of ingestion is the typical clinical sign observed. Diarrhea, anorexia, lethargy, and abdominal pain have also been reported (). Partially digested grapes and grape products may be present in the vomit, fecal material, or both (). This is followed by signs of renal insufficiency or failure (oliguria, anuria, polydipsia, proteinuria, and elevated serum concentrations of creatinine and urea) within a short period (,). In cases of dogs with oliguria or anuria, the prognosis is generally poor (). The time taken to administer treatment may also play a significant role in the outcome (). Given the large variability in the tolerance exhibited by dogs, the ingestion of any quantity of grapes or grape products by dogs should be handled aggressively (). Following recent ingestion, prompt decontamination using emetics and repeated doses of activated charcoal is highly recommended (). All dogs should receive aggressive intravenous fluid therapy for a minimum of 48–72 h, and their renal function should be monitored for at least 72 h ().

Table 1

Table 1

Range of doses of grapes and their dried products (raisins, sultanas, and currants) reported to cause renal failure in dogs.

Hops

Hops, the inflorescences of the female plant of the species Humulus lupulus, are used for beer brewing to add a bitter taste and hoppy aroma to beer and to stabilize the beer foam. As home brewing becomes increasingly popular, companion animals may be at risk of exposure. The ingestion of both fresh and spent hops has been associated with the development of malignant hyperthermia in dogs (). Any breed of dog may be affected, but breeds predisposed to malignant hyperthermia (e.g., Greyhounds, Labrador Retrievers, Saint Bernards, Pointers, Dobermans, Border Collies, English Springer Spaniels, and northern breeds) appear to be particularly susceptible (). Hops contain a variety of compounds, including resins, essential oils (hycrocarbons and oxygenated compounds), phenolic compounds (tannins), and nitrogenous compounds (). These compounds or their metabolites may uncouple oxidative phosphorylation resulting in malignant hyperthermia (). Clinical signs may be seen within hours of consuming hops and include marked hyperthermia, anxiety, tachycardia, tachypnea, panting, vomiting, abdominal pain, and seizures. Dark brown urine suggesting muscle necrosis may be observed (). Mortality can be high despite the aggressive therapy for hyperthermia (). Duncan et al. () reported five cases involving dogs (four of which were Greyhounds) that exhibited marked hyperthermia, restlessness, panting, vomiting, signs of abdominal pain, and seizures, after the ingestion of hops. Four of the five dogs died despite intensive care treatment (). Dogs suspected of recent ingestion of hops should be treated aggressively to decontaminate the gastrointestinal tract. Cooling measures, such as ice baths and cold IV fluids, should be used to lower the high body temperature. If available, dantrolene sodium, a skeletal muscle relaxant that has been used in humans to reverse malignant hyperthermia, may be administered ().

Macadamia Nuts

Macadamia nuts are produced by trees of the genus Macadamia (Proteaceae family). Only two species,Macadamia integrifolia and Macadamia tetraphylla, are plants of commercial importance as sources of food. All Macadamia spp. accumulate cyanogenic glycoside (proteacin and durrin) in their seeds but in very low concentrations in the case of commercial seeds (). Macadamia nuts are very popular as snacks for human consumption, both as plain nuts or when used in cakes, cookies, or candy (). They are considered to be a valuable food for their low cholesterol and sodium content and as an excellent source of manganese and thiamine (). Macadamia nut toxicosis has only been reported in dogs to date (). The mechanism of action of their toxicity in the case of dogs is currently unknown and the dose required to induce toxicity has not been established precisely (). The ingestion of as little as 0.7 g/kg of nuts has been associated with the development of clinical signs in dogs (). In another case, a series of toxic doses ranging from 2.2 to 62.4 g/kg was reported (). Clinical signs generally develop within 12 h of ingestion and may include weakness (particularly hind limb weakness), depression, vomiting, ataxia, tremors, hyperthermia, abdominal pain, lameness, stiffness, recumbency, and pale mucous membranes (). Although macadamia nut poisoning is relatively infrequent, 83 cases were reported in Queensland, a major area for Macadamia spp. cultivation in Australia, over a period of 5 years (). No deaths have been reported to date, and animals are expected to fully recover within 24–48 h with minimal veterinary intervention (). The induction of emesis should be considered in cases of recent ingestion of macadamia nuts by dogs that prove to be asymptomatic ().

Methylxanthines (Caffeine, Theobromine, and Theophylline)

Methylxanthines, including caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline, are plant-derived alkaloids that are commonly found in a variety of foods, beverages, human medication, and other products in the home. Caffeine is found in coffee (from the fruit of Coffea arabica), tea (from the leaves of Thea sinensis), guarana (from the seeds of Paullinia cupana), and as an additive in many soft drinks. Theobromine occurs in cacao seeds (Theobroma cacao) and in products manufactured from these seeds, such as chocolate. Theophylline is found in tea along with caffeine. Moreover, caffeine is used in human medication to increase mental alertness, and theophylline is widely used as a bronchodilator in anti-asthma drugs (). Methylxanthines antagonize cellular adenosine receptors and inhibit cellular phosphodiesterases, causing an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) (). Moreover, methylxanthines enhance the release of catecholamines and increase cellular calcium entry while inhibiting intracellular sequestration of calcium by the sarcoplasmic reticulum, leading to increased muscular contractility (). These combined actions result in the stimulation of both the CNS and cardiac muscle, the relaxation of smooth muscle, most notably bronchial muscle, and diuresis (). Methylxanthine poisoning cases have been reported after the ingestion of herbal supplements containing guarana (), garden mulch made of cacao bean shells (), caffeine tablets (), and caffeine-containing bait (). However, most poisoning cases occur as a result of chocolate ingestion (). Though the intoxication of cats may also occur, dogs are most commonly affected because of their indiscriminate eating habits (). The presence of chocolate was noted in the 10 most common cases of toxicosis involving dogs reported to the VPIS and to the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA), Animal Poisons Control Center (APCC) in the past few years (). Poisoning episodes frequently occur around holidays when there is a higher occurrence of chocolate products in the home (). In addition to theobromine, chocolate contains caffeine but in much lower concentrations. Theobromine and caffeine concentrations vary according to the type of chocolate (). Unsweetened baking chocolate and cocoa powder usually contain more than 14 mg of theobromine per gram. Semisweet dark chocolate and milk chocolate often contain around 5 and 2 mg of theobromine per gram, respectively, while white chocolate is considered to be an insignificant source of theobromine (). According to the ASPCA APCC data, mild clinical signs appear in dogs after ingesting 20 mg/kg of theobromine and caffeine, while severe clinical signs are observed at 40–50 mg/kg and seizures occur at 60 mg/kg (). Dogs with CYP1A2 deficiency polymorphism 1117C > T may be more at risk of poisoning due to reduced metabolism (). In dogs, caffeine is absorbed rapidly after ingestion while theobromine is absorbed 10 times slower, reaching peak plasma levels at approximately 10 h (). Initial clinical signs are generally observed within 2–4 h after ingestion and include restlessness, polydipsia, urinary incontinence, vomiting, and perhaps diarrhea. Dogs can be in an excited state and show marked hyperthermia and tachycardia. As intoxication progresses, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, premature ventricular contractions, muscular rigidity, ataxia, seizures, and coma may be observed. Death may occur from cardiac arrhythmia or respiratory failure (). Decontamination via emesis or gastric lavage, administration of multiple doses of activated charcoal, and meticulous supportive care should be the mainstay of treatment (). Prognosis is usually good, if effective decontamination is obtained within 2–4 h of ingestion ().

Xylitol

Xylitol is a five-carbon sugar alcohol primarily used as an artificial sweetener in many products, including sugar-free gum, candy, bread, cookies, and other baked goods. It can also be purchased as a granulated powder for cooking and baking. Because of its antibacterial activity and palatability, xylitol is also included in a variety of medical and dental care products. An additional concern is that the use of xylitol is not just confined to products intended for human use. Xylitol is also an ingredient in drinking water additives developed to help maintain dog and cat dental health (). The increased marketing and use of xylitol as a sweetener in recent years has led to increased risk of pet exposure to this agent (). Dogs are the species at the risk of developing severe, life-threatening clinical signs. In dogs, xylitol is a potent stimulator of insulin release, leading to dramatic decrease in blood glucose levels (). Doses, as low as 0.03 g/kg, have resulted in hypoglycemia in this species (). Moreover, xylitol ingestion has been associated with liver failure in dogs. The mechanisms responsible for hepatic injury are not clear yet. It is thought to be related to either adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion secondary to xylitol metabolism, leading to hepatic necrosis or the generation of hepatocyte-damaging reactive oxygen species or both (). According to the ASPCA APCC data, the lowest dose associated with xylitol-induced liver failure in dogs is 0.5 g/kg (). Clinical signs of xylitol toxicity in dogs may be related to hypoglycemia or hepatopathy or both. Vomiting is usually the initial clinical sign. Clinical signs of hypoglycemia, including lethargy, ataxia, collapse, and seizures, may develop within 30–60 min after ingestion or may be delayed up to 12 h after ingestion (). In dogs developing hepatopathy, lethargy, icterus, vomiting, and coagulopathic signs, such as petechiae, ecchymoses, and gastrointestinal hemorrhages, may be observed (). Several cases of xylitol ingestion have been reported in the last decade (). Table ​Table22 summarizes the cases of xylitol-induced acute hepatic failure reported in the literature. Recently, a retrospective study of the 192 cases of xylitol ingestion by dogs, reported to three American university teaching hospitals from December 2007 to February 2012, has been performed (). The median estimated dose ingested was 0.32 g/kg (range 0.03–3.64 g/kg). Clinical signs developed in 41 (21%) dogs and primarily included vomiting and lethargy, followed by diarrhea, ataxia, seizures, restlessness, and anorexia (). Thirty dogs (15.6%) became hypoglycemic and no significant difference was observed between hypoglycemic and euglycemic dogs with regards to the estimated dose of xylitol ingested. No dogs developed clinical signs or showed biochemistry values consistent with liver failure. All dogs survived and were discharged, suggesting an excellent prognosis for dogs that receive prompt veterinary care and evade liver failure (). Supportive care and monitoring are the mainstay of xylitol toxicity treatment. The induction of emesis should only be attempted early and in asymptomatic animals. Activated charcoal is not recommended because of its poor ability to bind to xylitol (). Blood glucose levels and liver function should be monitored. If hypoglycemia develops, intravenous dextrose should be administered (). Xylitol ingestion should always be considered by veterinarians as a differential diagnosis for any unexplained hypoglycemic presentation with or without accompanying liver dysfunction ().

Table 2

Table 2

Range of xylitol doses reported to cause acute hepatic failure in dogs.

Conclusion

The present review highlights the issue of exposure of small animals, particularly dogs, to potentially harmful foodstuffs commonly present in the home. A noticeable trend in exposure has emerged due to the increasing popularity of xylitol as a sweetener in several products. Obtaining an accurate history of exposure, early recognition of clinical signs, and rapid establishment of appropriate therapy can greatly improve the prognosis of food-related poisoning cases. Large gaps still exist in public knowledge of the hazard that certain foodstuffs may pose to the health of dogs and cats. Preventing exposure is the key to reducing the incidence of these poisoning episodes. Therefore, it is important to increase the knowledge of pet owners with regard to foodstuffs that must not be fed to dogs and cats and should be stored outside their reach.

Author Contributions

CC and FC gave substantial contributions to the conception and design of the work; drafted the work and revised it critically for important intellectual content; gave final approval of the version to be published; and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Conflict of Interest Statement

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The reviewer PZ and handling Editor declared their shared affiliation, and the handling Editor states that the process nevertheless met the standards of a fair and objective review.

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71. Dunayer EK. Hypoglycemia following canine ingestion of xylitol-containing gum. Vet Hum Toxicol(2004) 46:87–8. [PubMed]

72. Todd JM, Powell LL. Xylitol intoxication associated with fulminant hepatic failure in a dog. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (2007) 17:286–9.10.1111/j.1476-4431.2007.00243.x [Cross Ref]

73. Lim C-Y, Yoo J-H, Kim C-G, Park C, Park H-M. Acute hepatic failure induced by xylitol toxicosis in two dogs. J Vet Clin (2008) 25:510–3.

74. Fawcett A, Phillips A, Malik R. Hypoglycaemia and acute hepatic failure associated with accidental xylitol ingestion in a dog. Aust Vet Pract (2010) 40:142–7.

75. Schmid RD, Hovda LR. Acute hepatic failure in a dog after xylitol ingestion. J Med Toxicol(2015).10.1007/s13181-015-0531-7 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

76. Campbell A, Bates N. Xylitol toxicity in dogs. Vet Rec (2010) 167:108.10.1136/vr.c3789 [PubMed][Cross Ref]


Articles from Frontiers in Veterinary Science are provided here courtesy of Frontiers Media SA

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 2015 Jan;203(1):52-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.11.004. Epub 2014 Nov 13.

Poisoning of dogs and cats by drugs intended for human use.

Cortinovis C1Pizzo F1Caloni F2https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25475169

Abstract

One of the main causes of poisoning of small animals is exposure to drugs intended for human use. Poisoning may result from misuse by pet owners, off-label use of medicines or, more frequently, accidental ingestion of drugs that are improperly stored. This review focuses on classes of drugs intended for human use that are most commonly involved in the poisoning of small animals and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature. To perform this review a comprehensive search of public databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar) using key search terms was conducted. Additionally, relevant textbooks and reference lists of articles pertaining to the topic were reviewed to locate additional related articles. Most published information on small animal poisoning by drugs intended for human use was from animal and human poison control centres or from single case reports. The dog was the species most frequently poisoned. The major drugs involved included analgesics (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), antihistamines (H1-antihistamines), cardiovascular drugs (calcium channel blockers), central nervous system drugs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, baclofen, benzodiazepines and zolpidem), gastrointestinal drugs (loperamide), nutritional supplements (vitamin D and iron salts) and respiratory drugs (β2-adrenergic receptor agonists).

KEYWORDS:

Canine; Drugs intended for human use; Feline; Poisoning

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HERBS AND PLANTS TOXIC TO CATS IN GARDENS OR HOUSE

http://homeguides.sfgate.com/herbs-plants-poisonous-cats-46231.html

Herbs & Plants That Are Poisonous to Cats

Lilies are extremely poisonous to cats.

A blooming lily (Lilium spp.) may add a touch of color to your home, but that same plant can be deadly to your feline friend. Lilies are just one of the plants that are dangerous for your cats to eat; according to the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, more than 400 herbs and plants are poisonous to cats. Although most of these plants only cause temporary gastrointestinal issues, such as vomiting, some can cause organ failure or death.

Considerations

Just because your dog can chew on your houseplant without getting sick does not mean it is safe for your cat. Cats have a more sensitive digestive system than dogs and are more vulnerable to certain plant toxins. In fact, Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum) are not toxic to dogs but can kill cats. Because there are so many poisonous plants and herbs, it is best to pay attention to those that are the most toxic and those that are the most common. Familiarize yourself with the toxic properties of all plants you keep or grow near your pets. With few exceptions, the toxins in poisonous plants are in all portions of the plant, although some parts of the plant may be more poisonous than other parts. Consult a veterinarian if your cat shows signs of poisoning or if you suspect it has eaten a poisonous plant.

Deadly Plants

Lilies, from the Liliaceae family are exceptionally dangerous; ingesting even a small amount of plant matter can cause kidney failure and death. Liliaceae lilies include Easter lilies, Asian lilies (Lilium asiatica) and red lilies (Lilium umbellatum). Similarly, azaleas (Rhododendron spp.) and rhododendrons (Rhododendron spp.) are deadly to cats. Oleanders (Nerium oleander) -- common flowering landscape plants -- can kill cats, as can English yew (Taxus baccata). The bulbs of tulips (Tulipa spp.) and daffodils (Narcissus spp.) can cause convulsions, heart damage and death. Sago palms (Cycas revoluta), castor bean (Ricinus communis) plants and cyclamens (Cyclamen spp.) are all poisonous, but sago palm seeds, castor beans and cyclamen roots are the most deadly parts of these plants. Ingesting marijuana (Cannabis sativa) can cause seizures and coma and can also result in death, although this is rare. Mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens) can cause cardiovascular collapse in cats, and is of special concern during the holiday season when sprigs of this plant are brought inside the home.

Poisonous Plants

Many poisonous plants do not cause permanent damage, but may induce short-term vomiting or diarrhea until the toxin is out of the cat’s system. Begonia (Begonia spp.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) and chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum spp.) plants can all cause gastrointestinal upset and excessive salivation. Schefflera (Schefflera spp.) and pothos (Epipremnum aureum) are common houseplants that cause vomiting. Aloe (Aloe vera) gel is safe for cats, but the outer portions of the leaves can cause tremors and stomach upset. English ivy's (Hedera helix) toxins cause vomiting and stomach pain. Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) is only mildly toxic, affecting some cats with a temporary bout of vomiting. Kalanchoe (Kalanchoe spp.) plants may cause gastrointestinal upset as well as cardiac rhythm abnormalities.

Herbs

Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) is an extremely dangerous herb for cats as it can cause cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac failure and death. Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) is sometimes used as an herbal medicine for people, but it can cause liver damage when given to cats. St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) can induce temporary photosensitivity. Some herbs, such as valerian root (Valeriana officinalis) and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), are safe in plant form, but can be dangerous as concentrated extracts. Indian borage (Coleus ampoinicus), also known as Spanish thyme, can cause bloody vomiting or diarrhea. Garlic (Allium sativum) can cause vomiting, hemolytic anemia and an increased heart rate. Evening primrose (Primula vulgaris) may cause mild vomiting. In addition, pregnant cats should not be exposed to barberry (Berberis vulgaris), goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) or blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides).

Are Rosemary Plants Safe for Pets?

Small amounts of rosemary are sometimes added to dog treats.

Native to the Mediterranean, rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) is a perennial in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 8 through 10. Elsewhere, it is treated as an annual. This culinary herb has stiff leaves and a strong odor. In fact, its odor repels deer and many insects, so it might not be tempting to your pet. Watch your pet closely, however, because it can cause illness under certain conditions.

Toxicity

Rosemary is not listed on the American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animal's lists of toxic plants for dogs or cats, and is not considered toxic to pets. However, it does contain volatile oils that can cause stomach upset or depression of the nervous system if consumed in large amounts. Rosemary oil is sometimes used in aromatherapy or as a topical ointment. It should never be taken internally by animals or people.

Use

Rosemary has a strong flavor, which discourages most animals from taking more than one bite. If your cat or dog shows a preference for this plant, consider growing it in a pot out of your pet's reach. A few nibbles won't hurt, but indiscriminate munching might. Limiting the size of your planting is also advisable. Your pet won't likely come to harm if you have one plant for culinary use. Rosemary is often grown as a hedge in warm Mediterranean climates. When used extensively in a landscape, rosemary's risks to a curious pet increase.

Size

When selecting rosemary varieties, keep the mature size of the plant in mind. Most rosemary varieties become a bushy, upright shrub, growing 4 to 6 feet tall. Prostrate types remain compact and sprawl on the ground, over rock gardens or ledges. If you're worried about your pet's safety, the sprawling type might be a better choice because it is smaller. Prostrate rosemary varieties grow only 1 to 2 feet tall. Upright types should be pruned to reduce their height.

Growing Conditions

Once you've determined that your pet isn't interested in rosemary, or you've made plans to safely grow it, you'll find rosemary a low-maintenance herb. Rosemary grows best in full sun and well-drained soil. It rarely needs fertilizer and is drought tolerant once established. In fact, soggy soils usually kill it quicker than anything else. Rosemary produces blue, white or pink flowers. The spiny leaves can be used fresh or dried in casseroles, soups or meat dishes. Occasional pruning results in a compact, full plant.

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CAT DETERRENT PLANTS...

MINT

LAVENDER

ROSEMARY

CATMINT

Are Mint Leaves Bad for Dogs?

Some species of mint can safely freshen your dog's breath.

Leaves of mint plants (Mentha spp.) are known for their distinctive, pleasant aroma and flavor. Members of the mint family are tenacious perennial herbs that grow in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 3 through 10, depending on the species. While many types of mint are safe for dogs to eat and even included in some types of dog treats, others are toxic and should be avoided in a dog-friendly garden.

Mint Plants

Wild mint (Mentha arvensis) is a common perennial herb that grows in USDA zones 4 through 9. This herb, along with other types of mint, such as peppermint (Mentha x piperita) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) are some of the most common species grown to flavor foods. Both peppermint and spearmint grow in USDA zones 3 through 9. When growing any member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), take precautions to prevent these invasive plants from spreading throughout your garden, such as planting them in pots. You can bury the pots in soil if you wish, to keep the roots of the plants in check.

Toxicity

Mint species, including wild mint, spearmint and peppermint, are nontoxic to dogs, according to the Continental Kennel Club. The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals warns that the only species of mint, in the genus Mentha, that is toxic to dogs is English pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium). This plant, also referred to as European pennyroyal, grows in USDA zones 5 through 9 and is considered moderately invasive, according to the California Invasive Plant Council. English pennyroyal contains the chemical pulegone, which is not only toxic to dogs but also to people. Pulegone can cause liver damage and organ failure if ingested in large amounts, warns the University of California, Davis.

Canine Ingestion

If your dog eats any of an English pennyroyal plant, expect the pup to experience diarrhea, vomiting or weakness. Get Fido to the vet right away so that he can provide supportive care and possibly induce vomiting. For most other types of mint, there is no need to worry if your dog eats them. In fact, a few leaves of wild mint, peppermint or spearmint may even freshen your pup's breath or help with digestion. Many dog treat recipes call for ground mint leaves, and even commercially available dog treats contain them. As with any flora, keep the dog's ingestion to just a few leaves per day to prevent any gastrointestinal distress from eating too much plant matter.

Other Mint Safety

While not a member of the Mentha genus, catmint (Nepeta x faassenii) is a member of the mint family. This plant is safe for dogs as well as cats, according to the Seattle Times. Catmint grows in USDA zones 3 through 8. Another member of the mint family that is not a member of the Mentha genus is the perilla mint (Perilla frutescens). Perilla mint is used in Asian cooking and grows in USDA zones 5 through 10. This plant, while used for its minty flavor, is considered toxic to dogs and livestock, so avoid it in your garden, warns the Colorado Water Garden Society.

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My additions....

RAW OR GREEN POTATOES...TOXIC BAD FOR DOGS AND CATS

RAW OR GREEN LEAVES OF TOMATOES OR GREEN UNRIPE TOMATOES...TOXIC

KALE...TOXIC...links to follow...

QUORN..TOXIC

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Now. I think like most vegans that IGNORANCE is why anyone doesn't make CHANGES needed to anything in our lives. I like most was IGNORANT of even the way cows milk didn't just flow on tap without producing babies that were taken away AT ONCE and KILLED ! or that male baby chickens are ground up ALIVE as part of the EGG industry ! this is barbaric ! but when you don't realise...that animals bred today are FREAKS that suffer pain in chests and legs as part of the norm of their aweful purpose of existence we human farmers have done to get more money out of these verbally handicapped living creatures...well...ignorance about WE DONT NEED THEM AS FOOD even as it is POISONING us...

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